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Showing posts with label Herb and Spices Glosary. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Herb and Spices Glosary. Show all posts

Kucai = Chinese Cives / Chinese Leek / Garlic Cives

Kucai    = Chinese Cives / Chinese Leek / Garlic Cives

Chinese Cives / Chinese Leek / Garlic Cives/ Chives are tuber crops, height between 30 cm and 50 cm.Tubers slender conical with 2-3 cm long and 1 cm wide and grows in dense clumps. Leaf-shaped hollow tube, up to 50 cm long, and 2-3 mm in diameter, with a smooth texture. Although before the flowers appear on the leaves will look harder. Flowers are pale purple, star-shaped flower with six petals, 1-2 cm wide, and produced as much as 10-30.

Chives for most people is used as a food flavoring ingredient. Some are a fan as processed vegetables. But not many know the type of herb that has the Latin name of the family Alliaceae Allium schoenoprasum it is beneficial for the treatment.

Aroma chives closer to garlic than leeks. That's why in English is called garlic chives. Because it is widely used in food culture influenced China, chives also known as Chinese chives.

Garlic chives contain a variety of compounds that act as antioxidants, antibiotics, anticancer and antibacterial. "Garlic chives also contains several minerals that are good for the body, such as potassium, calcium and phosphorus that are beneficial to bone health. Kucai also contains vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C, and carotenoids,".

Ferulic acid contained in the chives which is a component of antioxidant, can neutralize free radicals that can cause cell damage. Ferulic acid is very well taken people who suffer from diabetes. Therefore, it can reduce blood sugar levels in fat. Additionally, chives contain <I> thiosulfinates <P> which can be used to fight prostate cancer cells.

because it contains antioxidants, protein and high fiber, beneficial Garlic chives help keep skin beauty from within. In addition, vitamin C contained in the chives can brighten the skin. There is also a alisin substances that can improve blood flow to the heart, so that the blood flow into a well and affect skin care

Source tabloidcempaka[dot]com


Bawang Putih = Garlic

Bawang Putih    = Garlic

Garlic (Allium sativum;) is a plant of the genus Allium name and the name of bulbs produced, Has a history of use by humans for over 7,000 years, mainly grown in Central Asia, [2] and has been the ingredients of food in the area around the Mediterranean, as well as common seasoning in Asia, Africa, and Europe. Known in ancient Egyptian records, used either as a mixture of cuisines and treatment.Bulbs of garlic plant is the main ingredient for the basic ingredients of Indonesian cuisine.

Garlic is used as a spice that is used in almost every food and Indonesian cuisine. Before use as a seasoning, garlic crushed with a knife pressed to the side (dikeprek) finely chopped and sauteed before in a frying pan with a little vegetable oil. Garlic can also be mashed with various types of ingredients that else.

And seasoning can also be used as a medicine for warts, how: mashed garlic (do not smooth) then put on the wart and a strong tie with plaster cloth or wait until 30 minutes, do not too many moves, then the skin will be hot and the wart will menghitam.tomorrow you free of warts. Garlic has antibiotic properties as naturally in the human body.


Bawang prei = Leek

Bawang prei  = Leek

Leek (Allium ampeloprasum or Allium porrum) belonging to the genus Allium the onion family. It feels similar to onions, but less sharply. Widely used in European cuisine. Usually sauteed in butter until wilted before being mixed together other dishes. Leek is an important component in French cuisine among others vichyssoise (savory soup with potato and leek), as well as porridge soup Scotland Scottish and cock-a-leekie. Leek is one of the national vegetable country Wales.

Leek also has many benefits for health
12 grams leek stalk contains 20 micrograms of vitamin K and 1.6 mg of vitamin C. Both vitamins are very important for the growth and maintenance of bones. In women in particular, the incidence of osteoporosis and bone fractures possibility can be prevented by eating leek regularly.

Leek is producing allyl propyl and chromium. Allyl propyl useful in reducing glucose levels in the blood, while chromium regulate blood sugar and insulin levels in the body. Therefore, the leek is the best vegetables to regulate blood sugar levels in your body.

Leek is a good supplement for the heart. Chromium is present in vitamin B6 and beneficial sulfur in maintaining the health of your heart. Chromium is not only reduces triglycerides and bad cholesterol but also increase the good cholesterol in the body, thus protecting your heart from a variety of potential diseases.
Leek also contains potassium which controls blood pressure. As a result, if the cholesterol and blood pressure in your body is well organized, the risk of heart attacks and strokes can also be minimized.

When you consume leek regularly, you also reduce the risk of some types of cancer. This is due to the presence of flavonoids in leek. Quercitin is flavonoids in leek that can prevent the development of cancer cells in the colon, thereby reducing the chances of developing colon cancer
Kaempferol in leek also has enormous benefits, especially for women because these flavonoids reduce the risk of ovarian cancer up to 40 percent

Inflammation or inflammation in the body can be overcome with leek. This is because these vegetables prevent the formation of enzymes that cause inflammation in the body. Therefore, eating leek very good because it is anti-inflammatory and anti-histamine.

Leek is a source of food that is rich in phytochemicals. This substance is tasked to maintain the immune system and eliminate the enzyme responsible for the creation of free radicals in the human body. In this way, the potential for tissue and DNA damage can be minimized by good.

Vitamin A deficiency can cause various types of visual impairment including blindness. One leek stalk contains 24 micrograms of vitamin A that is converted to retinol. Retinol is very good for the health of your eyes.


Bawang Merah = Shallot

Bawang  Merah   =   Shallot

Shallots (Allium cepa L. var Aggregatum) is a plant that is a flavor / spices of various cuisines of Southeast Asia and the world.
Javanese people called as " Brambang ", The most widely used is the tubers, although some culinary traditions also use the leaves and flower stalks as food seasonings. This plant is thought to have come from the region of Central Asia and Southeast Asia.

shallots contain vitamin C, calcium, fiber, and folic acid. In addition, shallots also contain calcium and iron. shallots also contain natural growth regulators such as hormones auxin and gibberellin. Other uses shallots is a traditional remedy, shallots known as a drug because it contains antiseptic effect and compound alliin. Compound alliin by the enzyme alliinase is then converted into pyruvic acid, ammonia, and alliisin as anti-microbial that is bactericidal.

Fried shallots is  shallots sliced thinly and fried in cooking vegetable oil that much.  Generally, Indonesian dishes such as soto, soup, stew chicken porridge is also used as a flavoring when served. Besides processed into fried shallots, shallots can also be useful as a drug is to treat ulcers, colds, lowering blood sugar levels, lower cholesterol, as medicine diabetes / diabetes mellitus, ease breathing and blood flow because shallots can inhibit accumulation of platelets and increase fibrinotik activity.

source id.wikipedia

Bawang Bombay = Onion / Yellow onion

Bawang Bombay = Onion / Yellow onion

Onions in indoneisa called " bawang bombay " (Latin: Allium Cepa Linnaeus) is a type of onion that is the most numerous and widely cultivated, used as a spice and food ingredients, large round-shaped and thick fleshy.

Onions are commonly used in cooking food in Indonesia, is not only used as garnish but also a part of the cuisine because of its large and thick flesy, Called bawang bombay as brought by traders from the city Bombay (now Mumbai) in India to Indonesia.

possibility onions came from Central Asia, the possibility of Palestine, then spread to Europe and India, and entry brought by traders from there.

Most likely the onions into Indonesia as the entry of traders from India or the Dutch. The Dutch had tried to cultivate onions in Padang, but countless failed.

The use of onions in Indonesia was first used on the popular Chinese and European dishes, but later used it many Indonesian food

Onion has a distinctive aroma when compared with the usual shallot, tubers are formed of layers of leaves are enlarged and united. [2] The tree grows straight up, root fibrous and not too long (± 10c), the leaves are shaped like a pipe but flat dark green and the leaves are larger than shallot. [3] is a quasi Stem leaf midrib and cause traces rings, base widened and thickened pelepahnya forming large swelling which serves to store food reserves, swelling itself is bulb onions.

source : id.wikipedia

Indonesian laurel / Indonesian bay leaf = Daun salam

Indonesian laurel / Indonesian bay leaf = Daun salam

indonesian laurel / indoneisan bay is the name of the herb leaf-producing trees are used in cooking indonesia. in English is known as indonesian bay leaf / indonesian laurel.

indonesian Bay leaves/ indonesian laurel are used primarily as a cooking spice fragrances in a number of countries in Southeast Asia, good for cooking meat, fish, vegetables, and rice. This leaves mixed in one piece, dried or fresh, and also cooked up the food cooked. [4] This spice gives a distinctive herbs aroma, but not hard. In the market and in the kitchen, greeting often paired with "laos" aka galangal.

The wood is reddish orange brown and medium quality. Wood timber belonging to the chelate (trade name) can be used as building materials and home furnishings. The bark of salam tree contains tannin ,  often used as Ubar (for coloring and preserving) mesh, woven material of bamboo and others. The bark and leaves are used as traditional ingredients to cure stomach ache. people is Eaten salam fruit as well, although only children who love it.

Traditionally, indonesian bay leaves/ indonesian laurel are used as an upset stomach. indonesian Bay leaves can also be used to stop excessive defecation. indonesia Laurel can also be used to overcome gout, stroke, high cholesterol, blood circulation, gastroenteritis, diarrhea, rashes, diabetes, and others.

indonesian bay leaf/ indonesian laurel trees spread in Southeast Asia, from Burma, Indochina, Thailand, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo and Java. This tree is found growing wild in the forests of primary and secondary, began from the beach to a height of 1,000 m (in Java), 1,200 m (in Sabah) and 1300 m (in Thailand); most of the trees making under the canopy. [4] In addition indonesian laurel planted in gardens and lands yard agroforestry others, especially to take leaves. Wild bay leaves almost never used in cooking, but because it smells a little different and less fragrant, wild greeting also cause a bitter taste.

Source. id.wikipedia

Daun Pisang = Banana Leaf

Daun Pisang  =  Banana Leaf

Banana leaves serve many purposes in Asian cooking, from adding flavor to foods cooked inside them, to simply being used as a colorful and exotic background for serving-plates and party platters. Banana leaves are beautiful, fun to use, and easy to cook with!

Banana leaves used in cuisine are generally large, flexible, and waterproof.[3] When cooking food with or serving or wrapping food with banana leaves, they may confer an aroma to the food leaves; steaming with banana leaves imparts a subtle sweet flavour to the dish.[4]

The leaves contain the juices, protect food from burning and add a subtle flavor.[5] In Tamil Nadu (India) leaves are fully dried and used as packing material for food stuffs and also making cups to hold liquid foods. The dried leaves are called 'Vaazhai-ch- charugu' (வாழைச் சருகு) in Tamil. Some South Indian, Filipino and Khmer recipes use banana leaves as a wrapper for frying. The leaves are later removed to retain flavor. In Vietnamese cuisine, banana leaves are used to wrap foods such as cha-lua.

In Indonesian cuisine, banana leaf is employed in cooking method called pepes and botok; the banana leaf packages containing food ingredients and spices are cooked on steam, in boiled water or grilled on charcoal. Banana leaves are also used to wrap several kinds of snacks kue (delicacies), such as nagasari or kue pisang and otak-otak, and also to wrap pressed sticky rice delicacies such as lemper and lontong.

In Java, banana leaf is also used as a coned plate called "pincuk", usually to serve rujak tumbuk, pecel or satay. The pincuk is made by creating shallow cone-shaped banana leaf plate secured with lidi semat (small thorn-like nail made from the coconut leaf mid rib). The pincuk fit the left palm while the right hand used to consume the food. It is functioned as a traditional disposable take-away food container. The cleaned banana leaf is often used as a plate mat; cut banana leaf sheets placed upon rattan, bamboo or clay plates are used to serve food upon it. Decorated and folded banana leaves upon woven bamboo plate are used as the tray to serve tumpeng rice cone and jajan pasar or kue delicacies.


Daun Pandan = Pandan Leaf /Screwpine Leaf/Pandanus amaryllifolius

Daun Pandan   =   Pandan Leaf /Screwpine Leaf/Pandanus amaryllifolius

Pandanus amaryllifolius is a tropical plant in the Pandanus (screwpine) genus, which is commonly known as pandan leaves (/ˈpændənˌlivz/), and is used widely in Southeast Asian cooking as a flavoring. The characteristic aroma of pandan is caused by the aroma compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, which may give white bread, jasmine rice and basmati rice (as well as bread flowers Vallaris glabra) their typical smell.[2] The plant is rare in the wild but is widely cultivated. It is an upright, green plant with fan-shaped sprays of long, narrow, blade-like leaves and woody aerial roots. The plant is sterile, with flowers only growing very rarely, and is propagated by cuttings.

In India and Bangladesh it is called Rampe and ketaki respectively, along with the other variety of pandan there (Pandanus fascicularis), and is used to enhance the flavor of pulao, biryani and sweet coconut rice pudding, payesh if basmati rice is not used. It acts as a cheap substitute for basmati fragrance as one can use normal, non-fragrant rice and with the help of pandan the dish tastes and smells like basmati is used. It is called Ambemohor pat in Marathi; Ramba in Tamil, Biriyanikaitha in Malayalam, pandan wangi in Indonesian, hsun hmway (ဆွမ်းမွှေး) in Burmese, pandán in Filipino, bai tooey in Thai, rampe in Sinhala, sleuk toi in Khmer, Daun Pandan in Nonya cooking,[3] lá dứa in Vietnamese, 香兰 ("Xiāng lán") in Chinese and बासमतिया पौधा [bɑːsmət̪ɪjɑː pɑʊd̪ʱɑː] "fragrant plant" in Magahi and Bhojpuri due to its fragrance.

The leaves are used either fresh or dried, and are commercially available in frozen form in Asian grocery stores in nations where the plant does not grow. They have a nutty, botanical fragrance that is used as a flavor enhancer in India, Indonesian, Singaporean, Filipino, Malaysian, Thai, Bangladeshi, Vietnamese, Chinese, Sri Lankan, Khmer and Burmese cuisines, especially rice dishes and cakes.

Biriyanikaitha in Kerala, India
The leaves are sometimes steeped in coconut milk, which is then added to the dish. They may be tied in a bunch and cooked with the food. They may be woven into a basket which is used as a pot for cooking rice. Pandan chicken, (Thai: ไก่อบใบเตย, kai op bai toei), is a dish of chicken parts wrapped in pandan leaves and baked. The leaves are also used as a flavoring for desserts such as pandan cake and sweet beverages. Filipino cuisine uses pandan as a flavoring in buko pandan fruit salad, as well as rice-based pastries and numerous sweet drinks and desserts.[4]

Bottled pandan extract is available in shops, and often contain green food coloring. The leaves also notably have a repellent effect on cockroaches.[5]

Source WIkipedea


Daun Kunyit = Turmeric Leaf

Daun Kunyit   =   Turmeric Leaf
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) /ˈtɜrmərɪk/ or /ˈtjuːmərɪk/ or /ˈtuːmərɪk/[2] is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae.[3] It is native in southwest India, and needs temperatures between 20 and 30 °C (68 and 86 °F) and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive.[4] Plants are gathered annually for their rhizomes, and propagated from some of those rhizomes in the following season.

When not used fresh, the rhizomes are boiled for about 30–45 minutes and then dried in hot ovens,[5] after which they are ground into a deep-orange-yellow powder commonly used as a spice in Indian cuisine and curries, for dyeing, and to impart color to mustard condiments. One active ingredient is curcumin, which has a distinctly earthy, slightly bitter, slightly hot peppery flavor and a mustardy smell.

Botanical view of Curcuma longa

Turmeric field in an Indian village
India, a significant producer of turmeric,[6] has regional names based on language and country.

Turmeric is a perennial herbaceous plant, which reaches up to 1 m tall. Highly branched, yellow to orange, cylindrical, aromatic rhizomes are found. The leaves are alternate and arranged in two rows . They are divided into leaf sheath, petiole, and leaf blade.[10] From the leaf sheaths, a false stem is formed. The petiole is 50 to 115 cm long. The simple leaf blades are usually 76 to 115 cm long and rarely up to 230 cm. They have a width of 38 to 45 cm and are oblong to elliptic narrowing at the tip .

Turmeric, whose biological name Curcuma longa, has been used in India as part of Ayurvedic medicine, and in Chinese medicine for thousands of years, to treat a variety of health conditions. An active ingredient in the turmeric leaf is curcumin, which is a powerful antioxidant.

As part of Ayurvedic medicine, turmeric leaves can be crushed into a paste and applied to the skin. This use dates back to ancient times and is still in use today in India. It is believed turmeric may help keep the skin soft and smooth, make the skin glow, produce a fairer complexion and remove blemishes such as spots. It is also used to alleviate skin conditions such as eczema and as an antiseptic to treat cuts and burns.

Tumeric leaves, also known as haldi leaves, are used extensively as aromatic herbs in Indian, Thai and Malaysian cooking. Fresh turmeric leaves are used whole in select dishes and dried turmeric leaves soaked in water with the extract used in cooking. Turmeric leaves are also used as food coloring and as a basic ingredient in curry powders. Turmeric leaves are purported to improve digestion and reduce gas and bloating.

Turmeric grows wild in the forests of South and Southeast Asia. It is one of the key ingredients in many Asian dishes. Indian traditional medicine, called Siddha, has recommended turmeric for medicine. Its use as a coloring agent is not of primary value in South Asian cuisine.

Turmeric is mostly used in savory dishes, but is used in some sweet dishes, such as the cake sfouf. In India, turmeric plant leaf is used to prepare special sweet dishes, patoleo, by layering rice flour and coconut-jaggery mixture on the leaf, and then closing and steaming it in a special copper steamer (goa).

In recipes outside South Asia, turmeric is sometimes used as an agent to impart a rich, custard-like yellow color. It is used in canned beverages, baked products, dairy products, ice cream, yogurt, yellow cakes, orange juice, biscuits, popcorn color, cereals, sauces, gelatins, etc. It is a significant ingredient in most commercial curry powders.

Most turmeric is used in the form of rhizome powder; in some regions (especially in Maharashtra, Goa, Konkan and Kanara), turmeric leaves are used to wrap and cook food. Turmeric leaves are mainly used in this way in areas where turmeric is grown locally, since the leaves used are freshly picked. Turmeric leaves impart a distinctive flavor.

Although typically used in its dried, powdered form, turmeric is also used fresh, like ginger. It has numerous uses in Far Eastern recipes, such as pickle that contains large chunks of soft turmeric, made from fresh turmeric.

Turmeric is widely used as a spice in South Asian and Middle Eastern cooking. Many Persian dishes use turmeric as a starter ingredient. Almost all Iranian khoresh dishes are started using onions caramelized in oil and turmeric, followed by other ingredients.

In India and Nepal, turmeric is widely grown and extensively used in many vegetable and meat dishes for its color, and is also used for its supposed value in traditional medicine.

In South Africa, turmeric is used to give boiled white rice a golden colour.

In Vietnamese cuisine, turmeric powder is used to color and enhance the flavors of certain dishes, such as bánh xèo, bánh khọt, and mi quang. The powder is also used in many other Vietnamese stir-fried and soup dishes.

In Indonesia, turmeric leaves are used for Minangese or Padangese curry base of Sumatra, such as rendang, sate padang, and many other varieties.

In Thailand, fresh turmeric rhizomes are widely used in many dishes, in particular in the southern Thai cuisine, such as the yellow curry (แกงเหลือง) and turmeric soup (ต้มขมิ้น).

In medieval Europe, turmeric became known as Indian saffron because it was widely used as an alternative to the far more expensive saffron spice.[14]



Daun Ketumbar = Cilantro/Coriander Leaf

Daun Ketumbar = Cilantro/Coriander Leaf

Coriander (UK /ˌkɒrɪˈændə/;[1] US /ˈkɔːriˌændər/ or /ˌkɔːriˈændər/;[2] Coriandrum sativum), also known as cilantro (/sɪˈlɑːntroʊ/),[3] Chinese parsley or dhania,[4] is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae. Coriander is native to regions spanning from southern Europe and North Africa to southwestern Asia. It is a soft plant growing to 50 cm (20 in) tall. The leaves are variable in shape, broadly lobed at the base of the plant, and slender and feathery higher on the flowering stems. The flowers are borne in small umbels, white or very pale pink, asymmetrical, with the petals pointing away from the centre of the umbel longer (5–6 mm or 0.20–0.24 in) than those pointing toward it (only 1–3 mm or 0.039–0.118 in long). The fruit is a globular, dry schizocarp 3–5 mm (0.12–0.20 in) in diameter. Although sometimes eaten alone, the seeds are often used as a spice or an added ingredient in other foods.

The leaves are variously referred to as coriander leaves, fresh coriander, Chinese parsley, or (in North America) cilantro.

It should not be confused with culantro (Eryngium foetidum L.), an apiaceae like coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) but in a different genus. Culantro has a distinctly different spiny appearance, a much more potent volatile leaf oil[14] and a stronger smell.

The leaves have a different taste from the seeds, with citrus overtones. However, some people experience an unpleasant soapy taste or a rank smell and avoid the leaves.[15]

The fresh leaves are an ingredient in many Indian foods (such as chutneys and salads); in Chinese and Thai dishes; in Mexican cooking, particularly in salsa and guacamole and as a garnish; and in salads in Russia and other CIS countries. Chopped coriander leaves are a garnish on Indian dishes such as dal. As heat diminishes their flavour, coriander leaves are often used raw or added to the dish immediately before serving. In Indian and Central Asian recipes, coriander leaves are used in large amounts and cooked until the flavour diminishes.[16] The leaves spoil quickly when removed from the plant, and lose their aroma when dried or frozen.

The dry fruits are known as coriander seeds. In Indian cuisine they are called dhania.[17][18]

The word coriander in food preparation may refer solely to these seeds (as a spice), rather than to the plant. The seeds have a lemony citrus flavour when crushed, due to terpenes linalool and pinene. It is described as warm, nutty, spicy, and orange-flavoured.

The variety C. s. vulgare has a fruit diameter of 3–5 mm (0.12–0.20 in), while var. microcarpum fruits have a diameter of 1.5–3 mm (0.059–0.118 in). Large-fruited types are grown mainly by tropical and subtropical countries, e.g. Morocco, India and Australia, and contain a low volatile oil content (0.1-0.4%). They are used extensively for grinding and blending purposes in the spice trade. Types with smaller fruit are produced in temperate regions and usually have a volatile oil content of around 0.4-1.8%, so are highly valued as a raw material for the preparation of essential oil.[19]

It is commonly found both as whole dried seeds and in ground form. Roasting or heating the seeds in a dry pan heightens the flavour, aroma and pungency. Ground coriander seed loses flavour quickly in storage and is best ground fresh. Coriander seed is a spice in garam masala and Indian curries which often employ the ground fruits in generous amounts together with cumin, acting as a thickener.

Roasted coriander seeds, called dhana dal, are eaten as a snack. They are the main ingredient of the two south Indian dishes: sambhar and rasam.

Outside of Asia, coriander seed is used widely in the process for pickling vegetables. In Germany and South Africa (see boerewors), the seeds are used while making sausages. In Russia and Central Europe, coriander seed is an occasional ingredient in rye bread (e.g. borodinsky bread), as an alternative to caraway.

The Zuni people have adapted it into their cuisine, mixing the powdered seeds ground with chile and using it as a condiment with meat, and eating leaves as a salad.[20]

Coriander seeds are used in brewing certain styles of beer, particularly some Belgian wheat beers. The coriander seeds are used with orange peel to add a citrus character.

The nutritional profile of coriander seeds is different from the fresh stems and leaves. Leaves are particularly rich in vitamin A, vitamin C and vitamin K, with moderate content of dietary minerals (table above). Although seeds generally have lower content of vitamins, they do provide significant amounts of dietary fiber, calcium, selenium, iron, magnesium and manganese.[21]



Dau kari / Daun salam Koja = Curry Leaf

Dau kari / Daun salam Koja = Curry Leaf

The curry tree (Murraya koenigii or Bergera koenigii) is a tropical to sub-tropical tree in the family Rutaceae (the rue family, which includes rue, citrus, and satinwood), which is native to India and Sri Lanka.

Its leaves are used in many dishes in India and neighbouring countries. Often used in curries, the leaves are generally called by the name 'curry leaves,' although they are also literally 'sweet neem leaves' in most Indian languages (as opposed to ordinary neem leaves which are very bitter and in the family Meliaceae, not Rutaceae).

Curry leaves, are, however, an important ingredient in many curry dishes, especially in India, Thailand, and other Asian countries.

It is a small tree, growing 4–6 m (13–20 feet) tall, with a trunk up to 40 cm (16 in) diameter. The aromatic leaves are pinnate, with 11-21 leaflets, each leaflet 2–4 cm (0.79–1.57 in) long and 1–2 cm (0.39–0.79 in) broad. The plant produces small white flowers which can self-pollinate to produce small shiny-black berries containing a single, large viable seed. Though the berry pulp is edible -- with a sweet but medicinal flavor -- in general, neither the pulp nor seed are used for culinary purposes.

The species name commemorates the botanist Johann König.

In the kitchen, use the leaves for a warm, appetising aroma and a subtle, spicy flavour with meat, seafood or vegetable curries, chutneys, pickles, coconut sauces, relishes, omelettes, marinades and vegetarian cuisine. The method of using the leaves (preferably fresh ones) in stir-fries and curries, is to heat some oil, butter or ghee in a pan, add the curry leaves along with a little ginger and garlic and sauté until brown. The flavour of the curry leaf is enhanced when fried. Fresh curry leaves will keep for a week if kept in a dry plastic bag in the fridge.
Curry powder does not come from the curry tree, as some people often think. Curry powder is usually a combination of many ingredients including ginger, chilli, black pepper, cumin, coriander, garlic, fenugreek, and turmeric to give the yellow colour. The proportion of each ingredient in the curry powder will depend on the tradition and origin of each particular recipe. However, crushed leaves from the curry tree are used as an ingredient in some Madras curry powders. The dried leaves add a spicy note to pot-pourri. Do not confuse the curry tree with the Curry Plant (Helichrysum italicum syn. H. angustifolium) (p 88) which belongs to the Asteraceae family. The curry plant is a perennial bush to 50cm with fine, silvery grey stems and leaves. A grey down covers the 4cm long narrow leaves and when rubbed they smell strongly of curry. Yellow button-like flowers form as terminal clusters. Propagation of the curry plant is by seeds, cuttings and root division. Grow in a well-drained area. Trim bushes regularly to keep them in good shape. Use the trimmings in pot-pourri. The dried flowers keep their colour for a long time. Add chopped young tender leaves to salads, cooked meat and savoury dishes.

Some of the primary alkaloids found in the Curry Tree leaves, stems, and seeds are as follows: Mahanimbine, girinimbine, koenimbine, isomahanine, mahanine, Indicolactone, 2-methoxy-3-methyl-carbazole.[5]

A 2011 study of girinimbine, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from this plant, found that it inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma, HepG2 cells in vitro.[6]


Kafir Lime Leaf = Daun Jeruk Purut

Kafir Lime Leaf = Daun Jeruk Purut

The kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix), sometimes referred to in English as the makrut lime (see below) or Mauritius papeda,[2] is a fruit native to tropical Asia including India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines. It is used in Southeast Asian cuisine and the oil from it is used in perfumery.[3]

English: makrut lime; French:[4] citron combera, combava, citron ridé; Burmese: tau shauk hka: (တောရှောက်ခါး; pronounced: [tɔ̀.ʃaʊʔ.kʰá]); Indonesian/Malay: jeruk obat, jeruk purut, limau purut; Filipino: kabuyao or cabuyao; Khmer: krô:ch saë:ch;[4] Laos: mak khi hut (ໝາກຂີ້ຫູດ; pronounced [ma᷆ːk.kʰi᷆ː.hu᷆ːt]); Thai: ma krut (มะกรูด; pronounced [ma.krùːt]);[5][6] also known as combava, kieffer lime, makrut lime, or magrood lime. In South Indian cuisine it is used widely and is known as "narthangai".

The Oxford Companion to Food (ISBN 0-19-211579-0) recommends that the name kaffir lime be avoided in favor of makrut lime because Kaffir is an offensive term in some cultures and has no good justification for being attached to this plant.

The rind of the makrut lime is commonly used in Lao and Thai curry paste, adding an aromatic, astringent flavor.[5] The zest of the fruit is used in creole cuisine to impart flavor in "arranged" rums in the Martinique, Réunion island and Madagascar. However, it is the hourglass-shaped leaves (comprising the leaf blade plus a flattened, leaf-like leaf-stalk or petiole) that are used most often in cooking. They can be used fresh or dried, and can be stored frozen. The leaves are widely used in Thai[5] and Lao cuisine (for dishes such as tom yum), and Cambodian cuisine (for the base paste "Krueng"). Makrut lime leaves are used in Vietnamese cuisine with chicken to add fragrance. They are also used when steaming snails to decrease the pungent odor while cooking. The leaves are also used in Indonesian cuisine (especially Balinese cuisine and Javanese cuisine), for foods such as Soto ayam, and are used along with Indonesian bay leaf for chicken and fish. They are also found in Malaysian and Burmese cuisines.[9] The juice is generally regarded as too acidic to use in food preparation. In Cambodia, the entire fruit is crystallized/candied for eating.[4]

The Kaffir lime tree (Citrus hystrix) is commonly grown for use in Asian cuisine. While this dwarf citrus tree, reaching up to 5 feet tall, can be grown outdoors (year round in USDA zones 9-10), it is best suited for indoors. The Kaffir lime tree thrives in potted environments and would benefit from placement out on the patio or deck; however, its container needs to provide adequate drainage.

Kaffir limes are about the size of Western limes. They are dark green with a bumpy surface. In order for the Kaffir lime tree to produce any limes, be sure to provide plenty of light for flowering.

Because they produce very little juice, the juice and flesh of Kaffir limes is rarely used, but the sour-tasting rind can be finely grated and used for flavoring dishes. Fresh Kaffir limes can be frozen using freezer bags and used as needed.

Kaffir limes have many household uses as well, including cleaning and hair conditioning.

Kaffir lime trees are generally not bothered by many pest problems but may become susceptible to mites or scale if left near infected plants.

Although it is possible to grow Kaffir lime trees from seed, this method is often difficult to achieve. Likewise, grafted trees tend to bloom and bear fruit earlier than seedlings.

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